Bachelor of Science Honours in Applied Physics |
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NUST code: |
SPH | ||
DURATION: |
4 Years |
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TYPE OF DEGREE: |
HONOURS |
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CREDIT LOAD: |
485 Credits |
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LEVEL |
SADC-QF - Level 8 | ||
ACCREDITATION ORGANISATION(S): |
Zimbabwe Council for Higher Education (ZIMCHE) |
These regulations should be read in conjunction with the Faculty of Applied Science and the NUST General Academic Regulations
An applicant must have passed both Physics and Mathematics at ‘A’ level.
A student shall register for the requisite modules that will earn him the required Credits for the Year. Normally, he / she shall register for 12 modules in a year leading to a total of 36 taught modules for the Programme. Each module shall be assessed through a Continuous Assessment (25%) that comprises of assignments and at least two tests and a three hour written examination (75%).
During Year III, a student shall proceed to go on Industrial Attachment for a minimum of 28 weeks. The Industrial Attachment Module is equivalent to 12 modules. At the end of the Attachment period, the student shall present both an Oral and Written Report of what he learnt when he / she was in the Industry, before a Departmental Panel of Examiners.
In Year IV, a student shall choose a specific field of study by electing to take two modules, one in the First Semester and the other, in the Second Semester.
The student shall also register for the Research Project module at the start of Year IV. The area and topic of study shall be chosen by the student but should be approved by the Departmental Board who should assign a supervisor to the student for the work. The Research Project Module carries a weighting of two modules. The project shall be examined both Orally and by a Written Project Report which is the Honour’s Degree
Thesis. A student shall complete and hand in his project report, at least two weeks before the beginning of the Semester Final Examinations.
ASSESSMENT
For a module without a practical component, one three hour examination paper written at the end of the semester counts 75% and the continuous assessment counts 25%, towards the final mark. For a module with a practical component, a three hour examination paper written at the end of the semester counts 60%, the practical counts for 20% and the continuous assessment counts 20%, towards the final mark.
A students is required to pass all modules registered for in any part of the degree programme. A minimum of 485 credits are required for the award of a degree.
During Year III, a student shall proceed to go on Industrial Attachment for a minimum of 28 weeks. The Industrial Attachment Module is equivalent to 12 modules. At the end of the Attachment period, the student shall present both an Oral and Written Report of what he learnt when he / she was in the Industry, before a Departmental Panel of Examiners.
In Year IV, a student shall choose a specific field of study by electing to take two modules, one in the First Semester and the other, in the Second Semester.
The student shall also register for the Research Project module at the start of Year IV. The area and topic of study shall be chosen by the student but should be approved by the Departmental Board who should assign a supervisor to the student for the work. The Research Project Module carries a weighting of two modules. The project shall be examined both Orally and by a Written Project Report which is the Honour’s Degree
Thesis. A student shall complete and hand in his project report, at least two weeks before the beginning of the Semester Final Examinations.
ASSESSMENT
For a module without a practical component, one three hour examination paper written at the end of the semester counts 75% and the continuous assessment counts 25%, towards the final mark. For a module with a practical component, a three hour examination paper written at the end of the semester counts 60%, the practical counts for 20% and the continuous assessment counts 20%, towards the final mark.
A students is required to pass all modules registered for in any part of the degree programme. A minimum of 485 credits are required for the award of a degree.
I
SPH 11 Mechanics and Relativity
SPH14 Modern Physics
SPH Electricity and Magnetism
SMA11 Calculus
SMA12 Linear Algebra
SPH 1114 Thermal Physics I
SPH 1201 Waves and Optics
SPH 1202 Analogue Electronics
SMA 1201 Calculus of several variables
SCS 1211 Programming and programme Design for Physicists
SMA 1204 Ordinary differential Equations
CTL11 Conflict Transformation and Leadership
II
SPH 24 Thermal Physics II
SPH 21 Quantum Mechanics
SPH 26 Digital Electronics
SPH 21 Research Methodology
SPH 23 Classical Mechanics
TEE 2112 Microprocessors
SPH 2202 Solid State Physics
SPH 2203 Instrumentation Physics
SPH 2205 Atomic Physics
SMA 2201 Complex Analysis
SMA 2204 Partial Differential Equations
SMA 2206 Numerical Analysis
III
SPH 30 Industrial Attachment
IV
SPH 4111 Statistical Mechanics
SPH 42 Nuclear Physics
SPH 4113 Electromagnetism
Elective I
SPH 4201 Management and Quality Assurance
SPH 4202 Lasers and Modern Optics
SPH 4214 Material Science
Elective II
SPH 40 Project
Total programme Credits 485
Elective I
IV
SPH 4120 Geophysics I
SPH 4130 Industrial Instrumentation I
SPH 40 Energy Physics I
SPH 4160 Medical Physics I
SPH 4170 Applied Optics I
SPH 4180 Plasma Physics I
SPH 4190 Astronomy and Astrophysics I
Elective II
IV
SPH 4220 Geophysics II
SPH 4230 Industrial Instrumentation II
SPH 40 Energy Physics II
SPH 4260 Medical Physics II
SPH 4270 Applied Optics II
SPH 4280 Plasma Physics II
SPH 4190 Astronomy and Astrophysics II
The choice of electives shall be offered subject to staff availability. With the agreement of both Departments, students may also take a maximum of two modules from other Departments.
SERVICE MODULES
Part
Module Code
SPH 16 Modern Physics For Chemists
SPH 1209 Engineering Materials
SPH 11 Mechanics and Relativity
SPH14 Modern Physics
SPH Electricity and Magnetism
SMA11 Calculus
SMA12 Linear Algebra
SPH 1114 Thermal Physics I
SPH 1201 Waves and Optics
SPH 1202 Analogue Electronics
SMA 1201 Calculus of several variables
SCS 1211 Programming and programme Design for Physicists
SMA 1204 Ordinary differential Equations
CTL11 Conflict Transformation and Leadership
II
SPH 24 Thermal Physics II
SPH 21 Quantum Mechanics
SPH 26 Digital Electronics
SPH 21 Research Methodology
SPH 23 Classical Mechanics
TEE 2112 Microprocessors
SPH 2202 Solid State Physics
SPH 2203 Instrumentation Physics
SPH 2205 Atomic Physics
SMA 2201 Complex Analysis
SMA 2204 Partial Differential Equations
SMA 2206 Numerical Analysis
III
SPH 30 Industrial Attachment
IV
SPH 4111 Statistical Mechanics
SPH 42 Nuclear Physics
SPH 4113 Electromagnetism
Elective I
SPH 4201 Management and Quality Assurance
SPH 4202 Lasers and Modern Optics
SPH 4214 Material Science
Elective II
SPH 40 Project
Total programme Credits 485
Elective I
IV
SPH 4120 Geophysics I
SPH 4130 Industrial Instrumentation I
SPH 40 Energy Physics I
SPH 4160 Medical Physics I
SPH 4170 Applied Optics I
SPH 4180 Plasma Physics I
SPH 4190 Astronomy and Astrophysics I
Elective II
IV
SPH 4220 Geophysics II
SPH 4230 Industrial Instrumentation II
SPH 40 Energy Physics II
SPH 4260 Medical Physics II
SPH 4270 Applied Optics II
SPH 4280 Plasma Physics II
SPH 4190 Astronomy and Astrophysics II
The choice of electives shall be offered subject to staff availability. With the agreement of both Departments, students may also take a maximum of two modules from other Departments.
SERVICE MODULES
Part
Module Code
SPH 16 Modern Physics For Chemists
SPH 1209 Engineering Materials
YEAR I
SPH 1101 Mechanics 10 Credits
The module explores kinematics and kinetics: Inertial frames of reference; Motion in two and three dimensions; Dynamics of system of particles; Interactions between bodies, relative motion; Conservation of momentum and energy; Motion of systems of particles with variable mass; Collisions of particles; Rotational Dynamics: Rotation of rigid bodies; Moment of Inertia and its calculations for bodies of various shapes and about different axes; Work and energy in rotational motion; Angular momentum; Principles of conservation of angular momentum. It also looks at gravitation: Kepler's laws of planetary motion; Gravitational potential; Gravitation and gravity; Effect of earth's rotation on "g"; Gyroscope; Motion of a satellite; Coriolis force; The fundamental forces and their unification; Inertial forces in linearly accelerating frame; oscillatory motion: Simple harmonic motion; Mechanical oscillators; Superposition of S;H;M's; Damped and forced S;H;M;, Lissajous Resonance; Properties of Matter: Hooke's law; Moduli of elasticity and their inter-relationship; Applications of elasticity. The module also looks at fluid mechanics: Fluid at rest; Surface tension and capillarity; The continuity equation; Various types of flows; Boundary layers and turbulence; Steady state flow of fluids; Bernoulli's equation; Viscous flow and Viscosity; Friction: Nature of frictional forces; Motion in frictional medium; Rolling and sliding friction; Relativity: Space-time frames of reference; Galileo's principle of relativity; Simultaneity of events; Einstein's Special theory of relativity; Lorentz transformations; Momentum and energy systems.
SPH 1104 Modern Physics 10 Credits
The module explores the particle nature of radiation: Planck's postulate and thermal radiation, Blackbody radiation, the photoelectric effect, the Compton effect, X-ray production and pair production; Interaction of radiation with matter-photon emission and absorption; Stationery states, discrete energy spectrum and the continuous energy spectrum; The Frank-Hertz experiment; Spontaneous and stimulated emission. It also covers the wave nature of particles: De Broglie's Postulate; The electron diffraction experiment; The wave-particle duality; The uncertainty principle; Matter waves and their properties; The Thomson and Rutherford atomic models; The stability of the atom and Bohr's Postulates and his model of the atom; Atomic spectra; The Hydrogen Atom; Correction for finite nuclear mass; the Nuclear Models: Nuclear properties, sizes and densities, masses and densities; The Nuclear Models - Liquid drop; The deuteron; Shell Fermi gas models; Binding energy nuclear forces; Magic numbers and the nuclear decay and nuclear reactions, e-capture,αand β emission; Fission and fusion and other nuclear reactions; The origin of elements as well as an introduction to Elementary Particles: Isospin, Pions, Leptons and Families of elementary particles.
SPH 1105 Electricity & Magnetism 10 Credits
The module highlights the Static Electric fields: Coulomb's Law; The electric field; Motion of point charges in electric fields; Lines of force; Electric dipoles in electric fields; Electric flux; Gauss's Law; Applications of Gauss law; Electric Scalar Potential of a system of point charges;Capacitors in circuits; Energy stored in a capacitor; Dielectrics; Applications of Static electricity in Industries; Electric Current and Resistance: Electric conductors; Current and current density; Kirchhoff's Rules; DC Network Theorems; RC circuits; Wheatstone's bridge; More complex circuits; Measurement of current, Potential Difference and Resistance; Changing sensitivity of Instruments and Thermoelectricity. It also covers Magnetic fields: The force between currents; Definition of magnetic field and Magnetic flux Density; Magnetic intensity, Magnets in magnetic fields and Magnetic dipole moment; Torque on a current loop in a uniform magnetic field; Motion of charges in magnetic fields; Biot-Savart Law; Ampere's Law; Magnetic field of a solenoid and a bar magnet; Induction and Inductance: Faraday's and Lenz's Law; Self and Mutual Inductance Generation of High voltages using principles of induction; Energy storage in inductors and B fields; Electric motors and generators; The Lorentz force; Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Currents: L-R, L-C, and L-CR circuits; Basic Alternating current circuits; Phasor notation; Power in AC circuit; A-C network Theorems; AC bridges; Frequency filtering and tuning circuits; Transformers, capacitor and inductor circuits with generator together with Eddy currents.
SPH 1106 Modern Physics For Chemists 10 Credits
This module acquaints students with the introductory concepts in Modern Physics, Optics and Sound; In addition, selected topics in Electronics are dealt with as applied to Instrumentation Physics;
SPH 1114 Thermal Physics I 10 Credits
The module looks at Thermodynamic system, the working substance, state of a working substance, thermodynamic- co-ordinates, reversibility, thermodynamic equilibrium, and thermodynamic process; Temperature: Zeroth law and the concept of temperature, measuring temperature, temperature scales, Thermal expansion; Thermodynamic System: The concept of thermodynamic equilibrium; Equation of state; PV and Pq diagram for pure substances; PVq surfaces; Differential changes of state; Mathematical theorems; Examples of thermodynamic systems: stretched wire, surface film, reversible cell, dielectric slab, paramagnetic rod and work done in changing these parameters; Heat and the First Law of Thermodynamics: Heat, measuring heat capacities, heats of transformation, heat and work; First Law of Thermodynamics: non-flow energy equation, steady flow energy equation; The Heat Engine Cycle: The Carnot cycle, Carnot cycle for a perfect gas, constant pressure cycle, air standard cycles, steam cycles, gas turbine cycles; Refrigeration and Heat Pumps: Vapour compression cycles, pressure-enthalpy diagram, vapour-absorption cycles, and liquefaction of gases - isoentropic and isoenthalpic cooling, air and hydrogen liquefiers; Heat transfer: Conduction, convection, radiation, electrical analogy, thermal resistance; Properties of Thermodynamic substances: PV, PT diagrams of pure substances, PVT surfaces, use of vapour tables; The ideal gas: Properties and model of an ideal gas as well as the Equation of state for an ideal gas.
SMA1201 Calculus Of Several Variables 10 Credits
This module explores the Cartesian coordinates in three dimensions; Functions of several variables; Quadric surfaces; Curves; Partial derivatives; Tangent planes; Derivatives and differentials; Directional derivatives; Chain rule; Div, grad and curl; Maxima and minima; Lagrange multipliers; Double and triple integrals; Change of order; Change of variable; Polar
and spherical coordinates; Line and surface integrals; Green’ theorem in the plane; Divergence theorem; Stokes theorem and Applications.
SPH 1201 Waves And Optics 10 Credits
The module examines coupled Harmonic and anharmonic Oscillations: Normal modes; energy transfer in the coupled system; Coupled oscillations and the wave equation; Anharmonic Oscillations due to a non-linear return forces; The large amplitude pendulum; Thermal expansion of crystals; Wave Phenomena: Longitudinal and transverse progressive waves; Superposition of waves; pulses and wave packets; Fourier analysis of wave motion; Frequency spectrum; The Fourier integral; Waves in 2D and 3D; Resonating cavities and wave guides; Application to fibre optics Sound: Sound wave propagation in gases and solids; Energy distribution; Reflection and transmission of sound at boundaries; Acoustic phenomena -reverberations; music and noise; Infra and Ultrasound; Applications of ultrasound in medicine; material testing etc. it also looks at interference: Young's two slit experiment; Multi-beam interference; Newton's rings; Lloyd's mirror Michelson interferometer; Fabry-Perot interferometer; Applications of interferometry; Diffraction: Fraunhoffer diffraction; Diffraction gratings; Fresnel diffraction Kirchhoff's diffraction theory; Application of diffraction; Polarization: Methods of production of linearly polarised light; Circular and elliptical polarisation and the Polarisation of polychromatic light.
SPH 1202 Analogue Electronics 10 Credits
This module looks at Electronic Devices: Semiconductor diodes, transistors, FET, UJT, SCR, MOSFETS; Rectifier Circuits: Power supplies, half and full wave rectifiers, filter circuits, series and shunt voltage regulators; Amplifiers: Transistor biasing, stability factors, C-E amplifiers, linearity and distortion, h-parameter analysis, frequency response, feedback amplifiers, Operational amplifiers, ideal differential amplifiers, slew rate, frequency response;
Power amplifiers: Amplifier classes and efficiency, push-pull amplifiers, transformerless push-pull amplifiers; Oscillators: Barhausen criteria, phase shift, Wien bridge and Hartley oscillators and Crystal Oscillator for the stability of frequency.
CTL 1101 Conflict Transformation & Leadership 10 Credits
The thrust of the module is understanding peace and conflict; theories of conflict; conflict analysis and tools; economic roots of conflict; gender and conflict; leadership; leadership and conflict handling mechanisms; leadership and conflict handling mechanisms; women in leadership; leadership ethics; interplay: leadership, conflict and development.
YEAR II
SPH 2101 Quantum Mechanics 10 Credits
The module is on Schrodinger's theory of Quantum Mechanics: The wave function and its required properties; The probability densities; Solution of the time – independent Schrodinger equation for all known simple potentials including the Harmonic Oscillator - Hermite polynomial; Operator algebra: Hermiticity of Operators: Communicators; The Hamiltonian; The equation of Motion; The eigenvalues and Eigen-functions; Observables and expectation values; The one electron atoms: Spherical Harmonics; Quantum numbers; Selection rules; Angular momentum; The Zeeman Effect; The electron spin the Stern - Gerlach experiment; Addition of angular momentum; The Spin Orbit interaction; Total Angular Momentum; Spin -
Orbit Interaction and the Hydrogen Energy levels; Many-electron atoms: Pauli exclusion principle, electronic states, bonding in molecules and solids, the classical free electron model, Fermi energy.
SPH 2102 Thermal Physics II 10 Credits
The module looks at the Second Law: Formulations of Second Law of Thermodynamics, entropy, the T- S diagram, entropy and irreversibility, entropy and disorder; Quasi-static processes; Reversible and irreversible processes; The TdS and Energy equations; The method of Thermodynamic Potentials: U(S,V), F(V,T), H(S,P) and G(P,T); Thermodynamic Functions: Enthalpy Function; Helmholtz Function; Gibbs Function; Maxwell's Relations with thermodynamic variables, TdS equation, energy equations, heat capacity equations, heat capacity at constant pressure/volume, thermal expansivity, compressibility; Applications to various thermodynamic systems: The cooling and liquefaction of gases in a reversible and irreversible adiabatic expansion – the Joule Kelvin Effect; The Thermodynamics of dielectric and magnetic substances: the piezo-electric and piezo-magnetic effects; The Magneto- Caloric Effect; Phase transitions of the first kind: - The Classius-Clapeyron Equation; Nernst Theorem
The Third Law of Thermodynamics: The behaviour of thermal coefficients as the temperature T approaches absolute zero as well as The unattainability statement of absolute Zero.
SPH 2103 Classical Mechanics 10 Credits
The module looks at fundamental forces: Classification and unification; Inertial forces in linearly accelerating frame; Non-inertial systems; Lagrange's and Hamilton's formulation of mechanics; Generalised co-ordinates; Principle of least action; Lagrange's equation of motion and applications; Simple and double pendulum; Inclined plane; Orbital mechanics; Equivalence of Lagrangean and Newtonian mechanics; Lagrange's undetermined multipliers and Hamilton-Jacobi theory and Relativity.
SPH 2105 Research Methodology 10 Credits
The module looks at the importance of Research; Generating and Prioritising Research ideas; Review of Literature; Formulation of hypothesis and objectives; Introduction to study designs; Research proposal writing; Sampling Methods; Data collection; Presentation and analysis; Plagiarism; Referencing and citation as well as Report writing skills.
SPH 2106 Digital Electronics 10 Credits
This module looks at Denary, Octal, Hexadecimal, Binary Numbers; Various codes used; Binary addition, subtraction, multiplication, division; Logic Gates, Semiconductor Diodes & Transistor as switching devices NAD, NOT, NOR, OR and Exclusive 'OR* gates Boolean Algebra; Principle of Duality De Morgan's theorem; Half Adder and Full Adder; Karnaugh Map (2, 3, and 4 variables); Mini-terms and Maxi-terms; Use of K-Map using Mini-terms to simplify logic functions; Canonical forms of a function; Symmetric functions; Equivalence and Non-Equivalence Symmetry; Incompletely specified functions; Combinational gates; Logic gate Analysis and Synthesis; Logic Technology: D-T and TTL logic; Fan in, fan out and noise margins; Logic Threshold; Interfacing logic devices; Sequential Logic Systems: Flip-flops, 'SR*, JK, D and T type; Race around condition in clocked flip-flop; Master Slave flip-flop; Shift Registers; SIPO, SISO, PISO, and PIPO; Shift left to right; Schmidt Trigger; Types of memory used in computers; Counters: Synchronous and non-synchronous; Binary & Denary
counters; Divide by n or Modulo ‘n’ counters; Up and down counters, series and parallel carry modes; ADC and DAC: Sample and Hold circuit, Resolution of conversion, Successive Approximation ADC, Counter Ramp ADC; Weighted Resistor ladder DAC and Counter Properties.
SPH 2202 Solid State Physics 10 Credits
This module examines crystal Structure and Defects: Unit cell, crystal systems, elements of symmetry, Miller indices, diffraction, imperfections-vacancies, colour centres, dislocations; Burger's vector; Lattice Vibration: Elastic waves; Density of states; Specific heat models of Einstein and Debye; Scattering of X-rays, neutrons and light by phonons; Free-electron Model: Free electron gas; Electrical conductivity; Heat capacity of free electrons; Fermi surface; Thermionic emission; Semi-conductors: Direct and indirect band gap semiconductors, conductivity, mobility and life times in intrinsic semiconductors, extrinsic semiconductors: p-type and n-type semiconductors; Fermi energy level; P-N junctions, light emitting-, Zener -, tunnel diodes; Ohmic and non-Ohmic contacts, Hall effect in semiconductors; Schottly barrier; Oxide and non-oxide semiconductors; Magnetism: Classification as dia-, para-, ferro-, ferri- and antiferro-magnetics; Domains and other macroscopic phenomena; Magnetic measurement techniques; Applications-magnetic bubbles, magnetic phase analysis of alloys, imaging etc;
Dielectrics and Ferro-electrics: Electric polarisation, Mechanisms of polarisation-electronic, ionic orientational and space charge, derivation as a function of temperature and frequency; Claussius-Mossoti equation; Classification of ferro-electrics, ferroelectric domains, pyro-electricity, and piezoelectric materials and applications; Superconductivity: Theory of superconductivity, Meissner effect, flux quantization, type II superconductors heat capacity and applications.
SPH 2203 Instrumentation Physics 10 Credits
This module looks at Measurement Systems: Purpose, structure and elements; Static characteristics of measurement instruments, repeatability, tolerance, calibration, measurement standards, frequency response of measurement elements, error calculations and error compensation; Noise and interference in measurement circuits, random signals, probability density, spectral density and autocorrelation functions, noise reduction methods, economics, reliability and choice of measurement systems; Transducers: Principles and types; Capacitive, resistive, inductive, electromagnetic, thermoelectric, elastic, piezoelectric, piezo-resistive, electrochemical, gas, ion selective electrodes; Signal conditioners and data acquisition: Applications and limitations of op-amps, instrumentation amplifiers, current transmitters, frequency to voltage converters, current to voltage converters, energy to voltage converters, phase locked loops, ADC and DAC application in instrumentation systems, analogue and digital recorders, digital printers; introduction to flow measurement: Velocity, volume flow-rate, mass flow-rate, types of flow meters - ultrasonic, Doppler flow meter, pulse transmission and reflection, medical imaging flow measurement; Radiation Measurements: Photo-multiplier tubes, scintillators, ionisation chambers, infrared detectors, semiconductor detectors, nuclear instrumentation and standards.
SPH 2205 Atomic Physics 10 Credits
This module looks at Multi-electron Atoms: Identical particles and Indistinguishability; The Schrödinger Equation and the wave functions of multi-electron atoms: The two and three electron atoms; The exclusion principle: Fermions and Bosons; The Hartree Theory and its applications to multi-electron atoms; Electronic configuration and the ground states of multi-electron atoms; The periodic table; X-ray line spectra; Optical Excitations in Multi-electron atoms: Alkali atoms, Atoms with several Optically Active electrons, LS Coupling; Energy Levels in multi-electron atoms: The Carbon Atom; The Zeeman Effect in multi-electron atoms; Molecules: Bonding in molecules: Ionic and Covalent bonds; Molecular Spectra: Rotational, Vibrational and Electronic Spectra; Molecular energy levels; The Raman effect; Applications of Raman scattering;
YEAR III
SPH 3010 Industrial Attachment 120 Credits
A student is attached to the Industry with the assistance of the Department for a period of 28 weeks. The student is assigned an academic supervisor and at the point of his attachment, he/she shall be assigned a supervisor by the Company/Institution where he/she shall be attached. The academic supervisor shall from time to time liaise with the student and visit him/her for purposes of assessment. The Industrial supervisor shall also assess the student separately. The end of the attachment period, the student shall be jointly assessed by the two supervisors. The student shall write a report of what transpired when on attachment. He/she may be required to give an Oral Presentation before the Departmental Panel of Examiners and submit a written Industrial Attachment Report to the department at least two weeks before the beginning of the Semester Written Examination Schedule.
YEAR IV
SPH 4101 Statistical Mechanics 10 Credits
The course looks at Statistical Systems Microcanonical, Canonical and Grand Canonical Ensembles; Phase space; Classical Statistics: Liouville Theorem; Entropy and thermodynamic probability; Entropy of perfect gas using Microcanonical ensemble; Partition function; Evaluation of partition function for monatomic and diatomic gases; Maxwell's velocity distribution function; Equipartition of energy; Quantum Statistics: Inadequacy of classical statistics; Partition function for Bosons; Plank's law Derivation; Systems with variable particle numbers; The Gibbs and B;E distribution functions; Bose-Eistein condensation; Fluctuations in Bose System; Statistics of fermions; Fermi-Dirac energy distribution; Zero point energy; Concept of absolute zero of temperature; Fermi energy level and its physical significance; Electron contribution to specific heat capacity in metals; Fluctuations in fermion systems; Cryogenics: Phase equilibrium; The Clausius-Clapeyron equation; Pressure dependence of melting and boiling points; Critical point; Liquefaction of gases; Cryostat cooling with 3He; Production of milli degree temperatures; Applications of cryogenics in rocket propulsion, electronics, biology and medicine.
SPH 4102 Nuclear Physics 10 Credits
The module offers a review of elements and Principles of Quantum Mechanics - 3-dimensional problems, angular momentum, Parity, Transitions between states; The predictions of the shell model; Fermi Gas and Collecture model; Nuclear decay: Alpha decay; Basic Alpha decay processes; Theory of Alpha emission; Angular momentum and parity in α - decay; α - decay spectroscopy; Beta decay; Fermi Theory of β-decay; Energy release in β -decay; Angular Momentum and Parity Selection Rules; Forbidden decays; Double β -decay; β -decay spectroscopy; γ- Decay; Energetics of γ-decay; Angular Momentum and parity selection rules; Internal convection; Lifetimes for γ-emission; γ- ray spectroscopy, Nuclear Resonance, Fluorescence and the Mossbauer Effect; Nuclear Reactions: Energetics of Nuclear Reactions, Reaction cross section; Coulomb scattering; Nuclear scattering; Experimental Techniques; The optical model; Direct, Resonance and Heavy-Ion Reactions; Neutron Physics: Absorption and moderation of Neutrons; Neutron Sources and Neutron Detectors; Neutron Capture; Interference and diffraction with Neutrons; Nuclear fission: Characteristics of Fission, Fission and Nuclear Structure; Controlled Fission Reactions; Fission Reactors and Radiature Fission.
SPH 4103 Electromagnetism 10 Credits
The module covers Boundary Value Problems: Poisson's Equations; Solution of Poisson's equation for graded junctions, Child-Langmuir Relation; Laplace's equation; Uniqueness theorem; Solution in one and two variables; 90o Corner, Potential well, Parallel plate capacitor etc; Field and Circuit Theory: Maxwell's Equations for static and harmonically varying Currents; Displacement Current; Applications of circuit Theory and Field Theory; Electromagnetic Waves: Helmholtz Generalized Wave equation; Plane waves in dielectric, lossy dielectric and conducting medium; Phase and group velocities; Impendance of the medium; Poynting's Vector; Reflection, refraction, polarisation and dispersion of waves. It also looks at transmission Lines: Coaxial, Two wire and Infinite plane transmission line; Telegrapher's equation; Impedance at a point on a terminated transmission line; Matched impedance; Impendance matching with a quarter wavelength line; Smith Chart and its applications; Rectangular Waveguides; TE and TM mode of propagation; Cut-off frequency, attenuation in guides, Characteristic properties of Waveguides; Cavity resonators; Antennas and Radiation: Retarded Potentials, Radiation field due to a short dipole; Radiation due to half wave dipole; Radiation patterns due to linear arrays; Various types of antennas; Plasmas and Propagation in Ionised Medium: Definition of plasma in laboratory; Plane waves in ionised medium and Faraday Rotation.
SPH 4010 Research Project 25 Credits
Each student shall be required to undertake a research project in their fourth year of study. The project may be of an applied theoretical, experimental or industrial nature. The defining characteristic shall be one of quality and maturity of work expected of a graduating student. Results of the project work carried out during the entire year are to be typewritten, bound and submitted before the beginning of the Year IV second semester examinations. All students shall be required to give a seminar on their project work and the final grade shall be determined on the basis of the written report and the seminar.
SPH 4201 Management Science And Quality Assurance 10 Credits
The module looks at general and personnel management; Management control and Marketing Strategies; Business and Finance; Quality control plans for factories with special reference to physics equipment; Cost Effective Product Development; ISO standards; Research and Development Strategies in factories as well as quality and reliability.
SPH 4202 Lasers And Modern Optics 10 Credits
The module explore the Introductory concepts: Spontaneous and stimulated emission Rates of absorption and stimulated emission; Line broadening mechanisms; Transition cross-section and Gain co-efficient; Einstein Thermodynamic treatment; Saturation of absorption; Gain saturation; Pumping processes: Optical pumping; Radiative and transfer efficiencies; Quantum efficiencies for absorption and power; Electrical pumping; Electron impact excitation; Ionization balance equation; Pump rate calculation; Optical Systems: matrix formulation of geometrical optics; The Fabry Perot Interferometer; Fox and Li treatment, Confocal resonator; Gaussian beam propagation and 'ABCD' law; Stability condition; Unstable resonators; Hard-Edge Unstable resonators; Transformation of impedance through multi-layer optional systems; Resonator design; Types of lasers: Structure and operation of gas lasers, solid state laser, semiconductor laser, excimer lasers and dye lasers; Applications: Industrial applications, medical applications, telecommunication applications, environmental applications and military applications.
SPH 4203 Materials Science 10 Credits
This module looks at solid Solutions: Substitutional and interstitial solid solutions; Rules for solid solutions - Hume-Rothery; Intermediate Phases - crystal structure and properties; Examples of alloy systems; Constitutional Phase Diagrams: Solidification; Non-ferrous metals and alloys; Cooling curves and construction of phase diagrams; Examples of complete, partial and incomplete phase diagrams; Interpretation of phase diagrams - phases and compounds e;g; Al-Cu, Pb-Sn, Cu-Z and A1-Si systems; Ceramic phase systems; Eutectic, hypereutectic and hypo-eutectic compositions; Aluminium-rich end of A1-Cu and A1-Si systems. It also looks at Diffusional Processes: Mechanisms of diffusion - substitutional and interstitial; Diffusion equations - Fick's 1st and 2nd Laws; Applications of diffusion Laws; Deformation of Metals: Elastic and plastic deformation - introduction; Critical resolved shear stress in single crystals slip systems; Engineering stress-strain curves - modulus of elasticity, tensile strength, yield strength, ductility; Methods of metal deformation - rolling, extrusion, forging, drawing; Hardness measurement - Vickers, Brinell and Rockwell; Engineering application of cold and hot annealing. The module also examines corrosion: Oxidation of metal surfaces; Corrosion in acids and alkalis; Types of corrosion - electrochemical, atmospheric, intergranular; Methods for corrosion prevention - e;g; cathodic protection; Structure and Properties of Ceramic, Polymeric and Composite Materials; Simple Ceramic Materials: Alumina (A12O3), Magnesia (MgO), Silicates -asbestos, mica, clay, Mullite, Spinels, Carbides, Glasses - glass formers, modifiers, intermediates; Crystal Structures of Ceramic Materials e;g; NaC1, CsC1, CaF2, Diamond, corundum, perovskite silica; Some Properties of Ceramics: Porosity and densities, Thermal shock resistance; Thermal coefficient of expansion, Thermal conductivity, Hardness and strength, Rupture strength; Piezo-electricity;Composites: General treatment of composites
- concrete, asphalt, wood; Fabrication of composites; Classes of composites - different configurations of matrix and fibres and the Mechanical properties of composites.
SPH 4204 Industrial Instrumentation 10 Credits
This module looks at the measurement concepts: Measurement Energetics, Measurement Dynamics; Transducer Design and applications; Electronic and optical instrumentations; Digital and analogue signal processing: Digital and analogue signal processing and digital measurement techniques; Image processing as well as measurement Systems hardware.
ELECTIVE MODULES
The choice of electives shall be offered subject to staff availability.; With the agreement of both Departments, students may also take a maximum of two modules from other Departments.
SPH 4120 Geophysics I 15 Credits
The module highlights the Physics of the earth: Elementary plate tectonics; Geophysical methods and their applicability; Organisation of the geophysical work; Magnetic methods: Magnetic potentials; magnetic properties of rocks; The geomagnetic field -elements; measurements; measuring instruments; Anomalies of simple bodies; Qualitative and quantitative interpretation; Gravity methods: Electrical properties of rocks and minerals; Self-potentials; Resistivity method; Interpretation and the method of curve matching.
SPH4220 Geophysics II 15 Credits
This module looks at refraction and reflection seismology: Basic theory on refraction and reflection seismic methods, instruments for seismic data acquisition, interpretation of seismic data and seismic data processing techniques; Seismic reflection methods in engineering and environmental applications.
SPH 4150 Energy Physics I 15 Credits
This module is on energy sources: Renewable and non-renewable sources; Solar Energy: Solar energy, solar cells, solar panels, solar-chemical cells; Solar thermal applications; Solar energy storage; Efficiencies and applications.
SPH 4150 Energy Physics II 15 Credits
This module is on non-conventional energy sources: Wind, micro-hydro, tide, chemical, geothermal, biomass and biogas; Efficiencies and applications.
SPH 4160 Medical Physics I 15 Credits
The medical Physics elective is designed to prepare students to get employment in the health sector, medical equipment companies, equipment sales, pharmaceutical companies, public and private hospitals, etc. Major topics include: Radiotherapy, Nuclear medicine; Diagnostic radiology; MRI and Ultrasound.
SPH 4260 Medical Physics II 15 Credits
The module looks at therapeutic applications; Human anatomy and Physiology; Audiological measurements; Detectors, scintillators; PMT, TLD and film; Introduction to neurological measurements and Radiation Protection.
SPH 4170 Applied Optics I 15 Credits
The module outlines optical Detectors; Photonic devices for imaging and storage; Basic principles and applications of holography and Fibre optic telecommunication.
SPH 4270 Applied Optics II
The module is on laser Spectroscopy and Non-linear Optics.
SPH 4180 Plasma Physics I 15 Credits
Topics in this module include: Plasmas in nature; Plasma-fluid equations; Wave propagation in plasma Controlled fusion; Magnetic and inertial confinement.
SPH 4280 Plasma Physics II 15 Credits
The module explores plasma etching, deposition spraying; Plasma devices; MHD generators; Laser induced plasmas and Plasma diagnostics.
SPH 4190 Astronomy And Astrophysics I 15 Credits
This module is an introduction: Scope of astronomy; Size and age of the universe; Objects of the night sky: (Stars, constellations, planets); The Celestial Sphere: Rotation and hourly change of the night sky; Coordinate systems: declination and right ascension; Effect of the movement of the Sun in the sky; The ecliptic and the zodiac; equinoxes and solstices; Sedereal and solar day; Precession of the equinoxes; The Moon: Physical characteristics and orbit; phases and eclipses; sidereal and synodic month; Lunar surface and exploration; Theories of origin; The Solar System: Planetary orbits; Kepler’s laws; Retrograde motion; Overview of specific characteristics of each planet and its satellites; Asteroids and comets; Formation of the solar system; The Sun: Characteristics and structure; Spectrum; Sunspots and Energy output.
SPH 4290 Astronomy And Astrophysics II 15 Credits
This module looks at stars: Measuring distances – light year and parsec; Stellar motion; Star brightness – apparent and absolute magnitude; Star colours and spectra: spectral classification; Hertzsprung-Russel diagram; Evolution of stars – red giant, white dwarf, stellar collapse; Supernovae, pulsars, quasars; Black holes; Variable stars; Binary stars, open and globular clusters; Galaxies: The Milky Way; Galaxy types, sizes, distances; Recession and Hubble’s law; Age of the universe and the Big Bang; Cosmology; Solar System Formation: Collapse of Nebula; Capture theory; Condensation and Accretion theory; Star Formation: Jeans Collapse mechanism, Hydrogen burning, Accretion: free-fall, disk, outflows and Initial Mass Function.
SPH 1101 Mechanics 10 Credits
The module explores kinematics and kinetics: Inertial frames of reference; Motion in two and three dimensions; Dynamics of system of particles; Interactions between bodies, relative motion; Conservation of momentum and energy; Motion of systems of particles with variable mass; Collisions of particles; Rotational Dynamics: Rotation of rigid bodies; Moment of Inertia and its calculations for bodies of various shapes and about different axes; Work and energy in rotational motion; Angular momentum; Principles of conservation of angular momentum. It also looks at gravitation: Kepler's laws of planetary motion; Gravitational potential; Gravitation and gravity; Effect of earth's rotation on "g"; Gyroscope; Motion of a satellite; Coriolis force; The fundamental forces and their unification; Inertial forces in linearly accelerating frame; oscillatory motion: Simple harmonic motion; Mechanical oscillators; Superposition of S;H;M's; Damped and forced S;H;M;, Lissajous Resonance; Properties of Matter: Hooke's law; Moduli of elasticity and their inter-relationship; Applications of elasticity. The module also looks at fluid mechanics: Fluid at rest; Surface tension and capillarity; The continuity equation; Various types of flows; Boundary layers and turbulence; Steady state flow of fluids; Bernoulli's equation; Viscous flow and Viscosity; Friction: Nature of frictional forces; Motion in frictional medium; Rolling and sliding friction; Relativity: Space-time frames of reference; Galileo's principle of relativity; Simultaneity of events; Einstein's Special theory of relativity; Lorentz transformations; Momentum and energy systems.
SPH 1104 Modern Physics 10 Credits
The module explores the particle nature of radiation: Planck's postulate and thermal radiation, Blackbody radiation, the photoelectric effect, the Compton effect, X-ray production and pair production; Interaction of radiation with matter-photon emission and absorption; Stationery states, discrete energy spectrum and the continuous energy spectrum; The Frank-Hertz experiment; Spontaneous and stimulated emission. It also covers the wave nature of particles: De Broglie's Postulate; The electron diffraction experiment; The wave-particle duality; The uncertainty principle; Matter waves and their properties; The Thomson and Rutherford atomic models; The stability of the atom and Bohr's Postulates and his model of the atom; Atomic spectra; The Hydrogen Atom; Correction for finite nuclear mass; the Nuclear Models: Nuclear properties, sizes and densities, masses and densities; The Nuclear Models - Liquid drop; The deuteron; Shell Fermi gas models; Binding energy nuclear forces; Magic numbers and the nuclear decay and nuclear reactions, e-capture,αand β emission; Fission and fusion and other nuclear reactions; The origin of elements as well as an introduction to Elementary Particles: Isospin, Pions, Leptons and Families of elementary particles.
SPH 1105 Electricity & Magnetism 10 Credits
The module highlights the Static Electric fields: Coulomb's Law; The electric field; Motion of point charges in electric fields; Lines of force; Electric dipoles in electric fields; Electric flux; Gauss's Law; Applications of Gauss law; Electric Scalar Potential of a system of point charges;Capacitors in circuits; Energy stored in a capacitor; Dielectrics; Applications of Static electricity in Industries; Electric Current and Resistance: Electric conductors; Current and current density; Kirchhoff's Rules; DC Network Theorems; RC circuits; Wheatstone's bridge; More complex circuits; Measurement of current, Potential Difference and Resistance; Changing sensitivity of Instruments and Thermoelectricity. It also covers Magnetic fields: The force between currents; Definition of magnetic field and Magnetic flux Density; Magnetic intensity, Magnets in magnetic fields and Magnetic dipole moment; Torque on a current loop in a uniform magnetic field; Motion of charges in magnetic fields; Biot-Savart Law; Ampere's Law; Magnetic field of a solenoid and a bar magnet; Induction and Inductance: Faraday's and Lenz's Law; Self and Mutual Inductance Generation of High voltages using principles of induction; Energy storage in inductors and B fields; Electric motors and generators; The Lorentz force; Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Currents: L-R, L-C, and L-CR circuits; Basic Alternating current circuits; Phasor notation; Power in AC circuit; A-C network Theorems; AC bridges; Frequency filtering and tuning circuits; Transformers, capacitor and inductor circuits with generator together with Eddy currents.
SPH 1106 Modern Physics For Chemists 10 Credits
This module acquaints students with the introductory concepts in Modern Physics, Optics and Sound; In addition, selected topics in Electronics are dealt with as applied to Instrumentation Physics;
SPH 1114 Thermal Physics I 10 Credits
The module looks at Thermodynamic system, the working substance, state of a working substance, thermodynamic- co-ordinates, reversibility, thermodynamic equilibrium, and thermodynamic process; Temperature: Zeroth law and the concept of temperature, measuring temperature, temperature scales, Thermal expansion; Thermodynamic System: The concept of thermodynamic equilibrium; Equation of state; PV and Pq diagram for pure substances; PVq surfaces; Differential changes of state; Mathematical theorems; Examples of thermodynamic systems: stretched wire, surface film, reversible cell, dielectric slab, paramagnetic rod and work done in changing these parameters; Heat and the First Law of Thermodynamics: Heat, measuring heat capacities, heats of transformation, heat and work; First Law of Thermodynamics: non-flow energy equation, steady flow energy equation; The Heat Engine Cycle: The Carnot cycle, Carnot cycle for a perfect gas, constant pressure cycle, air standard cycles, steam cycles, gas turbine cycles; Refrigeration and Heat Pumps: Vapour compression cycles, pressure-enthalpy diagram, vapour-absorption cycles, and liquefaction of gases - isoentropic and isoenthalpic cooling, air and hydrogen liquefiers; Heat transfer: Conduction, convection, radiation, electrical analogy, thermal resistance; Properties of Thermodynamic substances: PV, PT diagrams of pure substances, PVT surfaces, use of vapour tables; The ideal gas: Properties and model of an ideal gas as well as the Equation of state for an ideal gas.
SMA1201 Calculus Of Several Variables 10 Credits
This module explores the Cartesian coordinates in three dimensions; Functions of several variables; Quadric surfaces; Curves; Partial derivatives; Tangent planes; Derivatives and differentials; Directional derivatives; Chain rule; Div, grad and curl; Maxima and minima; Lagrange multipliers; Double and triple integrals; Change of order; Change of variable; Polar
and spherical coordinates; Line and surface integrals; Green’ theorem in the plane; Divergence theorem; Stokes theorem and Applications.
SPH 1201 Waves And Optics 10 Credits
The module examines coupled Harmonic and anharmonic Oscillations: Normal modes; energy transfer in the coupled system; Coupled oscillations and the wave equation; Anharmonic Oscillations due to a non-linear return forces; The large amplitude pendulum; Thermal expansion of crystals; Wave Phenomena: Longitudinal and transverse progressive waves; Superposition of waves; pulses and wave packets; Fourier analysis of wave motion; Frequency spectrum; The Fourier integral; Waves in 2D and 3D; Resonating cavities and wave guides; Application to fibre optics Sound: Sound wave propagation in gases and solids; Energy distribution; Reflection and transmission of sound at boundaries; Acoustic phenomena -reverberations; music and noise; Infra and Ultrasound; Applications of ultrasound in medicine; material testing etc. it also looks at interference: Young's two slit experiment; Multi-beam interference; Newton's rings; Lloyd's mirror Michelson interferometer; Fabry-Perot interferometer; Applications of interferometry; Diffraction: Fraunhoffer diffraction; Diffraction gratings; Fresnel diffraction Kirchhoff's diffraction theory; Application of diffraction; Polarization: Methods of production of linearly polarised light; Circular and elliptical polarisation and the Polarisation of polychromatic light.
SPH 1202 Analogue Electronics 10 Credits
This module looks at Electronic Devices: Semiconductor diodes, transistors, FET, UJT, SCR, MOSFETS; Rectifier Circuits: Power supplies, half and full wave rectifiers, filter circuits, series and shunt voltage regulators; Amplifiers: Transistor biasing, stability factors, C-E amplifiers, linearity and distortion, h-parameter analysis, frequency response, feedback amplifiers, Operational amplifiers, ideal differential amplifiers, slew rate, frequency response;
Power amplifiers: Amplifier classes and efficiency, push-pull amplifiers, transformerless push-pull amplifiers; Oscillators: Barhausen criteria, phase shift, Wien bridge and Hartley oscillators and Crystal Oscillator for the stability of frequency.
CTL 1101 Conflict Transformation & Leadership 10 Credits
The thrust of the module is understanding peace and conflict; theories of conflict; conflict analysis and tools; economic roots of conflict; gender and conflict; leadership; leadership and conflict handling mechanisms; leadership and conflict handling mechanisms; women in leadership; leadership ethics; interplay: leadership, conflict and development.
YEAR II
SPH 2101 Quantum Mechanics 10 Credits
The module is on Schrodinger's theory of Quantum Mechanics: The wave function and its required properties; The probability densities; Solution of the time – independent Schrodinger equation for all known simple potentials including the Harmonic Oscillator - Hermite polynomial; Operator algebra: Hermiticity of Operators: Communicators; The Hamiltonian; The equation of Motion; The eigenvalues and Eigen-functions; Observables and expectation values; The one electron atoms: Spherical Harmonics; Quantum numbers; Selection rules; Angular momentum; The Zeeman Effect; The electron spin the Stern - Gerlach experiment; Addition of angular momentum; The Spin Orbit interaction; Total Angular Momentum; Spin -
Orbit Interaction and the Hydrogen Energy levels; Many-electron atoms: Pauli exclusion principle, electronic states, bonding in molecules and solids, the classical free electron model, Fermi energy.
SPH 2102 Thermal Physics II 10 Credits
The module looks at the Second Law: Formulations of Second Law of Thermodynamics, entropy, the T- S diagram, entropy and irreversibility, entropy and disorder; Quasi-static processes; Reversible and irreversible processes; The TdS and Energy equations; The method of Thermodynamic Potentials: U(S,V), F(V,T), H(S,P) and G(P,T); Thermodynamic Functions: Enthalpy Function; Helmholtz Function; Gibbs Function; Maxwell's Relations with thermodynamic variables, TdS equation, energy equations, heat capacity equations, heat capacity at constant pressure/volume, thermal expansivity, compressibility; Applications to various thermodynamic systems: The cooling and liquefaction of gases in a reversible and irreversible adiabatic expansion – the Joule Kelvin Effect; The Thermodynamics of dielectric and magnetic substances: the piezo-electric and piezo-magnetic effects; The Magneto- Caloric Effect; Phase transitions of the first kind: - The Classius-Clapeyron Equation; Nernst Theorem
The Third Law of Thermodynamics: The behaviour of thermal coefficients as the temperature T approaches absolute zero as well as The unattainability statement of absolute Zero.
SPH 2103 Classical Mechanics 10 Credits
The module looks at fundamental forces: Classification and unification; Inertial forces in linearly accelerating frame; Non-inertial systems; Lagrange's and Hamilton's formulation of mechanics; Generalised co-ordinates; Principle of least action; Lagrange's equation of motion and applications; Simple and double pendulum; Inclined plane; Orbital mechanics; Equivalence of Lagrangean and Newtonian mechanics; Lagrange's undetermined multipliers and Hamilton-Jacobi theory and Relativity.
SPH 2105 Research Methodology 10 Credits
The module looks at the importance of Research; Generating and Prioritising Research ideas; Review of Literature; Formulation of hypothesis and objectives; Introduction to study designs; Research proposal writing; Sampling Methods; Data collection; Presentation and analysis; Plagiarism; Referencing and citation as well as Report writing skills.
SPH 2106 Digital Electronics 10 Credits
This module looks at Denary, Octal, Hexadecimal, Binary Numbers; Various codes used; Binary addition, subtraction, multiplication, division; Logic Gates, Semiconductor Diodes & Transistor as switching devices NAD, NOT, NOR, OR and Exclusive 'OR* gates Boolean Algebra; Principle of Duality De Morgan's theorem; Half Adder and Full Adder; Karnaugh Map (2, 3, and 4 variables); Mini-terms and Maxi-terms; Use of K-Map using Mini-terms to simplify logic functions; Canonical forms of a function; Symmetric functions; Equivalence and Non-Equivalence Symmetry; Incompletely specified functions; Combinational gates; Logic gate Analysis and Synthesis; Logic Technology: D-T and TTL logic; Fan in, fan out and noise margins; Logic Threshold; Interfacing logic devices; Sequential Logic Systems: Flip-flops, 'SR*, JK, D and T type; Race around condition in clocked flip-flop; Master Slave flip-flop; Shift Registers; SIPO, SISO, PISO, and PIPO; Shift left to right; Schmidt Trigger; Types of memory used in computers; Counters: Synchronous and non-synchronous; Binary & Denary
counters; Divide by n or Modulo ‘n’ counters; Up and down counters, series and parallel carry modes; ADC and DAC: Sample and Hold circuit, Resolution of conversion, Successive Approximation ADC, Counter Ramp ADC; Weighted Resistor ladder DAC and Counter Properties.
SPH 2202 Solid State Physics 10 Credits
This module examines crystal Structure and Defects: Unit cell, crystal systems, elements of symmetry, Miller indices, diffraction, imperfections-vacancies, colour centres, dislocations; Burger's vector; Lattice Vibration: Elastic waves; Density of states; Specific heat models of Einstein and Debye; Scattering of X-rays, neutrons and light by phonons; Free-electron Model: Free electron gas; Electrical conductivity; Heat capacity of free electrons; Fermi surface; Thermionic emission; Semi-conductors: Direct and indirect band gap semiconductors, conductivity, mobility and life times in intrinsic semiconductors, extrinsic semiconductors: p-type and n-type semiconductors; Fermi energy level; P-N junctions, light emitting-, Zener -, tunnel diodes; Ohmic and non-Ohmic contacts, Hall effect in semiconductors; Schottly barrier; Oxide and non-oxide semiconductors; Magnetism: Classification as dia-, para-, ferro-, ferri- and antiferro-magnetics; Domains and other macroscopic phenomena; Magnetic measurement techniques; Applications-magnetic bubbles, magnetic phase analysis of alloys, imaging etc;
Dielectrics and Ferro-electrics: Electric polarisation, Mechanisms of polarisation-electronic, ionic orientational and space charge, derivation as a function of temperature and frequency; Claussius-Mossoti equation; Classification of ferro-electrics, ferroelectric domains, pyro-electricity, and piezoelectric materials and applications; Superconductivity: Theory of superconductivity, Meissner effect, flux quantization, type II superconductors heat capacity and applications.
SPH 2203 Instrumentation Physics 10 Credits
This module looks at Measurement Systems: Purpose, structure and elements; Static characteristics of measurement instruments, repeatability, tolerance, calibration, measurement standards, frequency response of measurement elements, error calculations and error compensation; Noise and interference in measurement circuits, random signals, probability density, spectral density and autocorrelation functions, noise reduction methods, economics, reliability and choice of measurement systems; Transducers: Principles and types; Capacitive, resistive, inductive, electromagnetic, thermoelectric, elastic, piezoelectric, piezo-resistive, electrochemical, gas, ion selective electrodes; Signal conditioners and data acquisition: Applications and limitations of op-amps, instrumentation amplifiers, current transmitters, frequency to voltage converters, current to voltage converters, energy to voltage converters, phase locked loops, ADC and DAC application in instrumentation systems, analogue and digital recorders, digital printers; introduction to flow measurement: Velocity, volume flow-rate, mass flow-rate, types of flow meters - ultrasonic, Doppler flow meter, pulse transmission and reflection, medical imaging flow measurement; Radiation Measurements: Photo-multiplier tubes, scintillators, ionisation chambers, infrared detectors, semiconductor detectors, nuclear instrumentation and standards.
SPH 2205 Atomic Physics 10 Credits
This module looks at Multi-electron Atoms: Identical particles and Indistinguishability; The Schrödinger Equation and the wave functions of multi-electron atoms: The two and three electron atoms; The exclusion principle: Fermions and Bosons; The Hartree Theory and its applications to multi-electron atoms; Electronic configuration and the ground states of multi-electron atoms; The periodic table; X-ray line spectra; Optical Excitations in Multi-electron atoms: Alkali atoms, Atoms with several Optically Active electrons, LS Coupling; Energy Levels in multi-electron atoms: The Carbon Atom; The Zeeman Effect in multi-electron atoms; Molecules: Bonding in molecules: Ionic and Covalent bonds; Molecular Spectra: Rotational, Vibrational and Electronic Spectra; Molecular energy levels; The Raman effect; Applications of Raman scattering;
YEAR III
SPH 3010 Industrial Attachment 120 Credits
A student is attached to the Industry with the assistance of the Department for a period of 28 weeks. The student is assigned an academic supervisor and at the point of his attachment, he/she shall be assigned a supervisor by the Company/Institution where he/she shall be attached. The academic supervisor shall from time to time liaise with the student and visit him/her for purposes of assessment. The Industrial supervisor shall also assess the student separately. The end of the attachment period, the student shall be jointly assessed by the two supervisors. The student shall write a report of what transpired when on attachment. He/she may be required to give an Oral Presentation before the Departmental Panel of Examiners and submit a written Industrial Attachment Report to the department at least two weeks before the beginning of the Semester Written Examination Schedule.
YEAR IV
SPH 4101 Statistical Mechanics 10 Credits
The course looks at Statistical Systems Microcanonical, Canonical and Grand Canonical Ensembles; Phase space; Classical Statistics: Liouville Theorem; Entropy and thermodynamic probability; Entropy of perfect gas using Microcanonical ensemble; Partition function; Evaluation of partition function for monatomic and diatomic gases; Maxwell's velocity distribution function; Equipartition of energy; Quantum Statistics: Inadequacy of classical statistics; Partition function for Bosons; Plank's law Derivation; Systems with variable particle numbers; The Gibbs and B;E distribution functions; Bose-Eistein condensation; Fluctuations in Bose System; Statistics of fermions; Fermi-Dirac energy distribution; Zero point energy; Concept of absolute zero of temperature; Fermi energy level and its physical significance; Electron contribution to specific heat capacity in metals; Fluctuations in fermion systems; Cryogenics: Phase equilibrium; The Clausius-Clapeyron equation; Pressure dependence of melting and boiling points; Critical point; Liquefaction of gases; Cryostat cooling with 3He; Production of milli degree temperatures; Applications of cryogenics in rocket propulsion, electronics, biology and medicine.
SPH 4102 Nuclear Physics 10 Credits
The module offers a review of elements and Principles of Quantum Mechanics - 3-dimensional problems, angular momentum, Parity, Transitions between states; The predictions of the shell model; Fermi Gas and Collecture model; Nuclear decay: Alpha decay; Basic Alpha decay processes; Theory of Alpha emission; Angular momentum and parity in α - decay; α - decay spectroscopy; Beta decay; Fermi Theory of β-decay; Energy release in β -decay; Angular Momentum and Parity Selection Rules; Forbidden decays; Double β -decay; β -decay spectroscopy; γ- Decay; Energetics of γ-decay; Angular Momentum and parity selection rules; Internal convection; Lifetimes for γ-emission; γ- ray spectroscopy, Nuclear Resonance, Fluorescence and the Mossbauer Effect; Nuclear Reactions: Energetics of Nuclear Reactions, Reaction cross section; Coulomb scattering; Nuclear scattering; Experimental Techniques; The optical model; Direct, Resonance and Heavy-Ion Reactions; Neutron Physics: Absorption and moderation of Neutrons; Neutron Sources and Neutron Detectors; Neutron Capture; Interference and diffraction with Neutrons; Nuclear fission: Characteristics of Fission, Fission and Nuclear Structure; Controlled Fission Reactions; Fission Reactors and Radiature Fission.
SPH 4103 Electromagnetism 10 Credits
The module covers Boundary Value Problems: Poisson's Equations; Solution of Poisson's equation for graded junctions, Child-Langmuir Relation; Laplace's equation; Uniqueness theorem; Solution in one and two variables; 90o Corner, Potential well, Parallel plate capacitor etc; Field and Circuit Theory: Maxwell's Equations for static and harmonically varying Currents; Displacement Current; Applications of circuit Theory and Field Theory; Electromagnetic Waves: Helmholtz Generalized Wave equation; Plane waves in dielectric, lossy dielectric and conducting medium; Phase and group velocities; Impendance of the medium; Poynting's Vector; Reflection, refraction, polarisation and dispersion of waves. It also looks at transmission Lines: Coaxial, Two wire and Infinite plane transmission line; Telegrapher's equation; Impedance at a point on a terminated transmission line; Matched impedance; Impendance matching with a quarter wavelength line; Smith Chart and its applications; Rectangular Waveguides; TE and TM mode of propagation; Cut-off frequency, attenuation in guides, Characteristic properties of Waveguides; Cavity resonators; Antennas and Radiation: Retarded Potentials, Radiation field due to a short dipole; Radiation due to half wave dipole; Radiation patterns due to linear arrays; Various types of antennas; Plasmas and Propagation in Ionised Medium: Definition of plasma in laboratory; Plane waves in ionised medium and Faraday Rotation.
SPH 4010 Research Project 25 Credits
Each student shall be required to undertake a research project in their fourth year of study. The project may be of an applied theoretical, experimental or industrial nature. The defining characteristic shall be one of quality and maturity of work expected of a graduating student. Results of the project work carried out during the entire year are to be typewritten, bound and submitted before the beginning of the Year IV second semester examinations. All students shall be required to give a seminar on their project work and the final grade shall be determined on the basis of the written report and the seminar.
SPH 4201 Management Science And Quality Assurance 10 Credits
The module looks at general and personnel management; Management control and Marketing Strategies; Business and Finance; Quality control plans for factories with special reference to physics equipment; Cost Effective Product Development; ISO standards; Research and Development Strategies in factories as well as quality and reliability.
SPH 4202 Lasers And Modern Optics 10 Credits
The module explore the Introductory concepts: Spontaneous and stimulated emission Rates of absorption and stimulated emission; Line broadening mechanisms; Transition cross-section and Gain co-efficient; Einstein Thermodynamic treatment; Saturation of absorption; Gain saturation; Pumping processes: Optical pumping; Radiative and transfer efficiencies; Quantum efficiencies for absorption and power; Electrical pumping; Electron impact excitation; Ionization balance equation; Pump rate calculation; Optical Systems: matrix formulation of geometrical optics; The Fabry Perot Interferometer; Fox and Li treatment, Confocal resonator; Gaussian beam propagation and 'ABCD' law; Stability condition; Unstable resonators; Hard-Edge Unstable resonators; Transformation of impedance through multi-layer optional systems; Resonator design; Types of lasers: Structure and operation of gas lasers, solid state laser, semiconductor laser, excimer lasers and dye lasers; Applications: Industrial applications, medical applications, telecommunication applications, environmental applications and military applications.
SPH 4203 Materials Science 10 Credits
This module looks at solid Solutions: Substitutional and interstitial solid solutions; Rules for solid solutions - Hume-Rothery; Intermediate Phases - crystal structure and properties; Examples of alloy systems; Constitutional Phase Diagrams: Solidification; Non-ferrous metals and alloys; Cooling curves and construction of phase diagrams; Examples of complete, partial and incomplete phase diagrams; Interpretation of phase diagrams - phases and compounds e;g; Al-Cu, Pb-Sn, Cu-Z and A1-Si systems; Ceramic phase systems; Eutectic, hypereutectic and hypo-eutectic compositions; Aluminium-rich end of A1-Cu and A1-Si systems. It also looks at Diffusional Processes: Mechanisms of diffusion - substitutional and interstitial; Diffusion equations - Fick's 1st and 2nd Laws; Applications of diffusion Laws; Deformation of Metals: Elastic and plastic deformation - introduction; Critical resolved shear stress in single crystals slip systems; Engineering stress-strain curves - modulus of elasticity, tensile strength, yield strength, ductility; Methods of metal deformation - rolling, extrusion, forging, drawing; Hardness measurement - Vickers, Brinell and Rockwell; Engineering application of cold and hot annealing. The module also examines corrosion: Oxidation of metal surfaces; Corrosion in acids and alkalis; Types of corrosion - electrochemical, atmospheric, intergranular; Methods for corrosion prevention - e;g; cathodic protection; Structure and Properties of Ceramic, Polymeric and Composite Materials; Simple Ceramic Materials: Alumina (A12O3), Magnesia (MgO), Silicates -asbestos, mica, clay, Mullite, Spinels, Carbides, Glasses - glass formers, modifiers, intermediates; Crystal Structures of Ceramic Materials e;g; NaC1, CsC1, CaF2, Diamond, corundum, perovskite silica; Some Properties of Ceramics: Porosity and densities, Thermal shock resistance; Thermal coefficient of expansion, Thermal conductivity, Hardness and strength, Rupture strength; Piezo-electricity;Composites: General treatment of composites
- concrete, asphalt, wood; Fabrication of composites; Classes of composites - different configurations of matrix and fibres and the Mechanical properties of composites.
SPH 4204 Industrial Instrumentation 10 Credits
This module looks at the measurement concepts: Measurement Energetics, Measurement Dynamics; Transducer Design and applications; Electronic and optical instrumentations; Digital and analogue signal processing: Digital and analogue signal processing and digital measurement techniques; Image processing as well as measurement Systems hardware.
ELECTIVE MODULES
The choice of electives shall be offered subject to staff availability.; With the agreement of both Departments, students may also take a maximum of two modules from other Departments.
SPH 4120 Geophysics I 15 Credits
The module highlights the Physics of the earth: Elementary plate tectonics; Geophysical methods and their applicability; Organisation of the geophysical work; Magnetic methods: Magnetic potentials; magnetic properties of rocks; The geomagnetic field -elements; measurements; measuring instruments; Anomalies of simple bodies; Qualitative and quantitative interpretation; Gravity methods: Electrical properties of rocks and minerals; Self-potentials; Resistivity method; Interpretation and the method of curve matching.
SPH4220 Geophysics II 15 Credits
This module looks at refraction and reflection seismology: Basic theory on refraction and reflection seismic methods, instruments for seismic data acquisition, interpretation of seismic data and seismic data processing techniques; Seismic reflection methods in engineering and environmental applications.
SPH 4150 Energy Physics I 15 Credits
This module is on energy sources: Renewable and non-renewable sources; Solar Energy: Solar energy, solar cells, solar panels, solar-chemical cells; Solar thermal applications; Solar energy storage; Efficiencies and applications.
SPH 4150 Energy Physics II 15 Credits
This module is on non-conventional energy sources: Wind, micro-hydro, tide, chemical, geothermal, biomass and biogas; Efficiencies and applications.
SPH 4160 Medical Physics I 15 Credits
The medical Physics elective is designed to prepare students to get employment in the health sector, medical equipment companies, equipment sales, pharmaceutical companies, public and private hospitals, etc. Major topics include: Radiotherapy, Nuclear medicine; Diagnostic radiology; MRI and Ultrasound.
SPH 4260 Medical Physics II 15 Credits
The module looks at therapeutic applications; Human anatomy and Physiology; Audiological measurements; Detectors, scintillators; PMT, TLD and film; Introduction to neurological measurements and Radiation Protection.
SPH 4170 Applied Optics I 15 Credits
The module outlines optical Detectors; Photonic devices for imaging and storage; Basic principles and applications of holography and Fibre optic telecommunication.
SPH 4270 Applied Optics II
The module is on laser Spectroscopy and Non-linear Optics.
SPH 4180 Plasma Physics I 15 Credits
Topics in this module include: Plasmas in nature; Plasma-fluid equations; Wave propagation in plasma Controlled fusion; Magnetic and inertial confinement.
SPH 4280 Plasma Physics II 15 Credits
The module explores plasma etching, deposition spraying; Plasma devices; MHD generators; Laser induced plasmas and Plasma diagnostics.
SPH 4190 Astronomy And Astrophysics I 15 Credits
This module is an introduction: Scope of astronomy; Size and age of the universe; Objects of the night sky: (Stars, constellations, planets); The Celestial Sphere: Rotation and hourly change of the night sky; Coordinate systems: declination and right ascension; Effect of the movement of the Sun in the sky; The ecliptic and the zodiac; equinoxes and solstices; Sedereal and solar day; Precession of the equinoxes; The Moon: Physical characteristics and orbit; phases and eclipses; sidereal and synodic month; Lunar surface and exploration; Theories of origin; The Solar System: Planetary orbits; Kepler’s laws; Retrograde motion; Overview of specific characteristics of each planet and its satellites; Asteroids and comets; Formation of the solar system; The Sun: Characteristics and structure; Spectrum; Sunspots and Energy output.
SPH 4290 Astronomy And Astrophysics II 15 Credits
This module looks at stars: Measuring distances – light year and parsec; Stellar motion; Star brightness – apparent and absolute magnitude; Star colours and spectra: spectral classification; Hertzsprung-Russel diagram; Evolution of stars – red giant, white dwarf, stellar collapse; Supernovae, pulsars, quasars; Black holes; Variable stars; Binary stars, open and globular clusters; Galaxies: The Milky Way; Galaxy types, sizes, distances; Recession and Hubble’s law; Age of the universe and the Big Bang; Cosmology; Solar System Formation: Collapse of Nebula; Capture theory; Condensation and Accretion theory; Star Formation: Jeans Collapse mechanism, Hydrogen burning, Accretion: free-fall, disk, outflows and Initial Mass Function.
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