Zimbabwe Journal of Science & Technology

Filling the gap between theory and practice

3. CREATING THE LIST OF REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

3.1: Introduction 

The list of references enables readers to easily trace the sources cited within your work. It is a list of the documents from which direct quotations or examples have been taken. 

N.B. A bibliography (where you give credit to sources that were used for background reading, but were not quoted within the body of the text), is NOT required according to the University of Manchester’s (2008) guidelines on Harvard citation style updates. 

Your list of references (and bibliography if you choose to provide one) should be arranged alphabetically by author and then, where necessary, by year of publication. 

Different types of publication require different amounts of information. The Harvard system lays down standards for the amount of information required for each document type. 

These are detailed in the section below: 


3.2: Books (single author) 

• Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma. 
• Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each. 
• Year: Publication year (not printing or impression) in parentheses, followed by full stop. 
• Title: Full title in italics. Only the first word and proper nouns should be capitalized. Follow with a full stop (unless there is a subtitle). 
• Sub-title: Follows a colon at the end of the full title. Only proper nouns should be capitalized. Followed by a full stop.
• Edition: Only include if it is not a first edition. Use the number followed by “ed.” 
• Place of publication: Give town or city, and country if there is possible confusion. Follow with a colon 
• Publisher: Publisher name followed by full stop.
Examples:
• Marshal, R. (2010). The five laws of records management. 7th ed. Kwekwe: Painted Rock Publishers. 
• Diaz, J. (2008). The copyrights question and the inability to clear tights in orphan works. 6th ed. New Delhi: Ess Ess Publications
 

3.2.1: Books (2, 3 or 4 authors) 

For books with two, three or four authors of equal status the names should all be included in the order they appear in the document. Use an ampersand (&) to link the last two authors. 

Required elements: 
• Authors, Initial(s). (Year of publication). Title of book. Edition (if not 1st edition). Place of publication: Publisher. 

N.B. If two authors use “and” to link the authors, if more than two use commas, followed by “and” to link the final two authors. 

Examples: 
• Hardly, D. and Timothy, G. (2000). Geological comparisons. 3rd ed. Lagos: Buras 
• David, R., Wallace, G., Sanders, M. and Edmondson, R. (2010). The basic concepts of audio visual archiving: European edition. 4th ed. London: Routledge 


3.2.2: Books (more than 4 authors) 

Use the first author only with surname and initials followed by “et al”. 

Required elements: 
• Author, Initial(s). et al. (Year of publication). Title of book. Edition (if not 1st edition). Place of publication: Publisher. 

Example: 
• George, T. et al. (2009). The handbook of records management. Melbourne: Longman 


3.2.3: Books which are edited 

For books that are edited, give the editor(s) surname(s) and initial(s), followed by “ed.” or “eds.” 

Required elements: 
• Author(s), Initial(s). ed(s). (Year of publication). Title of book. Edition (if not 1st edition). Place of publication: Publisher.
Example: 
• Roper, M. and Millar, L. eds. (1999). Managing public sector records: principles and context. London: IRMT 

3.2.4: Chapter(s) from an edited book 

Required elements: 
• Chapter author(s) surname(s), Initial(s). (Year). Title of chapter (followed by “In:”) Book editor(s) initials and surnames (followed by “ed.” or “eds.”) Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher. Chapter number (or first and last page numbers). 

Examples: 
• Matthew, F. and Whit, G. (2007). The survival of the Zimbabwean beef companies: institutional choice and contingency. In: Whitley, R. ed. The changing African trade: limits to convergence. London: Routledge. Ch.4. 
• Lang, A. (1999). The social constitution. In: Whitley, D and Kamba, G., eds. The changing social norms. London: Routledge. pp.271-304. 

3.2.5: Multiple works by a single author within the same year 

When there are several works by one author published in the same year they should be differentiated by adding a lower case letter after the date. 

Example: 
• Park, D. (2001a). The scientific considerations of nylon 6.6 materials. In: Forte, B. et al., Scientific options: the results of a careful study in fibre technology. Harare: ZPH. 95-112. 
• Park, D. (2001b). Textile technology. In: Forte, B. et al., Natural catalysts in fibre technology: an introduction for executives. Harare: ZPH.167-179. 

3.2.6: Electronic books 

Required elements
• Author, Initial(s). (Year of publication) Title of book. [type of medium]. Place of publication: Publisher. Available from: URL [accessed date]. 

Example: 
• Cad, S., Pada, T. and Cooper, H. (2010). Change management excellence: using the fours intelligences for successful organizational change. [e-book]. London: Kogan Page. 
Available from: http://www.netlibrary.com/ [accessed 6 May 2008]. 


3.3: Journal articles 

Required elements: 
• Author(s), Initials(s). (Year). Title of article. Full title of journal, Volume number (Issue / Part number), Page numbers. 

Example: 
• Snowden, D.J. and Boone, M.E. (2007). A leader’s framework for decision making. Harvard Business Review 85(11), 68-76. 

For electronic versions of a journal article, you may wish to provide details of how you accessed the article. This is especially important if the article is only available online: 

N.B. If you accessed the article through a bibliographic database, than you can provide the database details in place of the URL. 

Required elements: 
• Author(s), Initials(s). (Year). Title of article. Full title of journal, [type of medium] Volume number (Issue / Part number), Page numbers (if provided). Available from: URL. [accessed date]. 


Examples: 
• Hamblin, Y. (2005). Library and information management employability skills: LIMES. Sconul Focus [online] 35 (Summer / Autumn 2005). Available from: http://www.sconul.ac.uk/publications/newsletter/35/4.rtf [accessed 6 May 2008]. 
• Snowden, D.J. and Boone, M.E. (2007). A leader’s framework for decision making. Harvard Business Review [online] 85 (11), 68-76. Available from: Business Source Premier via EBSCO Host. [accessed 18 December 2007]. 


3.4: Newspaper articles 

Required elements: 
• Author, Initials. (Year). Title of article. Full title of newspaper, Day & 
month, page numbers. 

Example: 
• Wallace, S. (2008). Barry to reject record pay deal and join Benitez. 
The Independent, 6 May. 55. 

For an online version of a newspaper article, you should provide the details of how you accessed the article. If you have accessed the article through a database then provide these details in place of the URL. 

 Required elements (electronic versions): 
• Author, Initials. (Year). Title of article. Full title of newspaper, [type of medium] Available from: URL (or database details) [accessed date]. 

Examples: 
• Wallace, S. (2008). Barry to reject record pay deal and join Benitez. The Independent, [online] Available from: http://www.independent.co.uk/sport/football/premier-league/barry-to-reject-record-pay-deal-and-join-benitez-821643.html [accessed: 6 May 2008]. 
• Wallace, S. (2008). Barry to reject record pay deal and join Benitez. The Independent, [online] Available from: Dow Jones Factiva [accessed: 6 May 2008]. 


3.5: Annual reports 

Required elements: 
• Corporate author. (Year of publication). Full title of annual report, Place of publication: Publisher. 

Example: 
• General Motors. (2005). 2004 Annual report, Detroit: General Motors. 
 
Required elements (electronic version): 

Corporate author. (Year of publication). Full title of annual report, [type of medium]. Available from: URL [accessed date]. 

Example: 
• General Motors. (2005). 2004 Annual report, [online] Available from: http://www.gm.com/corporate/investor_information/docs/fin_data/gm04ar/index.html [accessed: 6 May 2008]. 
 

3.6 Information from a website 

Required elements: 
• Author(s) or corporate author. (Year). Title of document. [type of medium]. Available from: URL [accessed date] 

Example: 
• BBC News. (2007). King denies criticizing Treasury [online]. Available from:http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/7149384.stm [Accessed 19 December 2007]. 
 
Information from a website continued; required elements for online publications: 

 Required elements:
• Author or corporate author. (Year). Title of document. [type of medium]. Available from: URL [accessed date] 

Example: 
• Department of the Environment. (2006). Business plan 2007 – 08. [online] Available from: http://www.doeni.gov.uk/doe_business_plan_07-08.pdf [accessed 9 May 2008]. 

Required elements: 
• Author’s name(s) and initials. (Year). Title of paper. Full title of conference. Location. Date 

Example: 
• Sandberg, E.A. (2003). The face of embeddedness. Proceedings of the 19th IMP conference. University of Lugano, Switzerland. 4th – 6th September 2003. 
 

3.8: Dissertations 

Required elements: 
• Author’s name and initials. (Year). Title. Level. Educational establishment.
3.7: Conference proceedings / papers 

Example
• Maude, P. (1992). Modeling organisational buying behaviour incorporating judgemental methods. Ph. D. Manchester Business School. 


3.9: Acts of Parliament 

Required elements: 
• Short title with key words capitalized, (chapter number). Place of publication: Publisher 

Example: 
• Further Education and Training Act 2007, (ch.25). London: HMSO 


3.10: Statutory Instruments 

Required elements: 
• Short title with key words capitalized.(Year). Abbreviation “SI” followed by year of publication and SI number. Place of publication: Publisher 

Example: 
• The Television Broadcasting Regulations. (2000). SI 2000/54, London: HMSO 


3.11 Command papers 

Required elements:
• Authorship. (Year). Title, (Command number) Place of publication: Publisher 

Example: 
• Secretary of State for Education and Skills. (2006). Further Education: raising skills, improving life chances, (Cmnd. 6768) London: HMSO 

3.12 Standards 

Required elements: 
• Corporate author. (Year of publication). Identifying letters and numbers plus full title of standard, Place of publication: Publisher 

Example: 
• International Standards Organisation. (2006). ISO 15489: 2010 Records and archives management Specification. Milton Keynes: ISO 


3.13 Law reports 

Required elements: 
• Name of parties involved in the case. (Year of reporting). Law reporting 
series, Volume and number, reference. 

Example: 
• R. v Spence (Anthony). (2007) EWCA Crim 987, 2007 WL 1292606. 

List of references 

The University of Manchester: Faculty of Humanities. (2008). How to reference [online] Available from: http://www.humanities.manchester.ac.uk/studyskills/assignments/reference/ [accessed 16 May 2008] 


Bibliography 

Anglia Ruskin University., 2007. Harvard system of referencing guide [online] 

Available at: http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/files/Harvard_referencing.pdf [accessed 9 May 2008]