National University Of Science & Technology

Faculty Of Medicine

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The Division of the Basic Medical Sciences has the administrative and teaching responsibility for the initial two years of the MBBS programme. During the first two years the students learn anatomy, biochemistry and physiology.

Learning and Training Outcomes

Recognising that the basic sciences are a foundation for the clinical sciences, students should:

  • Understand the normal structure and function of the human body.
  • Appreciate the causes of diseases/ illnesses including genetic, environmental and social bases of disease/ illness.
  • Appreciate the pathogenesis of diseases.
  • Appreciate disease-related changes in normal structure and function.
  • Understand the pharmacological principles and rational drug utilization.
  • Appreciate the human life cycle ie from conception through to death.
  • Understand how to carry out quantitative and qualitative scientific research and the utilisation of research outcomes for clinical practice.




MBM 1101: Anatomy I

General Introduction to Gross Anatomy, Microscopic Anatomy (Histology) and Developmental Anatomy (Embryology)

Lower Limb and Upper Limb anatomy gross, Musculoskeletal Histology and Embryology


MBM 1102Biochemistry I  - Catabolism and Genetics

Biomolecules: Water as solvent, introduction to macromolecular chemistry , structure and function.  Enzyme activity and kinetics. 

Cell Biology and Metabolic Energy: Introduction to major cell structures and processes.  The cell membrane, Energy concepts, glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and ATP.

Food and Digestion: Macronutrients and micronutrients.  Digestive enzymes and absorption processes in the GIT.  Lipid uptake and transport. Diarrhea.

Nutrient Metabolism: The Embden –Meyerhof pathway to citric acid cycle.  Anaerobic metabolism, the Cori cycle.  Fatty acid oxidation and the ketone bodies.  Amino acids and the citric acid cycle.  The urea cycle.

Human Genetics: Introduction to genetic concepts, genome projects, human chromosomal mapping. Human diversity.  Inheritance and genetic diseases.  Genetic responses to infectious agents.  Evolutionary genetics.


MBM 1103:   Physiology I

General principles of Physiology, Body fluids and blood, Cardiovascular system.


MBM 1201:   Anatomy II

Gross anatomy of the abdomen and the pelvis. Histology and Embryology of the abdomen and of the male and female pelvises.


MBM 1202Biochemistry II – Anabolism and Biochemical Regulation


Synthesis of Biomolecules: Gluconeogenesis and anaplerotic strategies.  Glycogen metabolism.  Fatty acid synthesis, Synthesis of triglycerides, membrane lipids and cholesterol.  Amino acid synthesis.  Haem synthesis.  Nucleotide salvage and biosynthesis.

Hormonal Regulation and Tissue Specialisation: Regulatory strategies within cells and between cells.  Neurotransmitters, the biochemistry of neurotransmission, muscle activity and regulation.  Metabolic specialisation – the brain, muscles, the liver, adipose tissue.  The central metabolic roles of the liver.


MBM 1203:   Physiology II

Respiratory system, renal system, nutrition and metabolism, the gastro-intestinal tract.


MBM 2101:   Anatomy III

Anatomy of the thorax, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Anatomy (including the lymphatic system), Respiratory and Cardiovascular Histology and Embryology.


MBM 2102:   Physiology III

Excitable tissues, motor systems, special senses


MBM 2201:   Anatomy IV

Gross anatomy of the head, the brain and spinal cord, the neck and the back (the vertebral column & its soft tissues)

Neuroanatomy, relevant histology and embryology.


MBM 2202:   Physiology IV

The integrative functions of the central nervous system, the endocrine system and reproduction.


MBM 3101:   Pathology I

Concise course on General Pathology.  Principles, inflammation, tissue repair, haematology, Immunology, genetic pathology, neoplasia, infections and environmental diseases.  Atherosclerosis, Thrombosis, ischaemia and infarction.

Chemical Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics: Molecules as diagnostic indicators-metabolites, oligosaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids, lipoproteins.  Enzyme and immunotechnologies, PCR and molecular biology techniques.  Side-room techniques.  Molecular diagnosis of specific infections, diseases and inherited diseases.

Basic Microbiology and Parasitology: Scope and historical perspective; Classification; microscopy; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structures and function; Morphology and staining characteristics; Bacterial and fungal physiology and metabolism; Bacterial genetics; Isolation and identification; Viral properties, structure and function; Classification of parasites – protozoa, trematodes, cestodes, nematodes; structure, lifecycle, nutrition and reproduction of parasites.

Clinical Bacteriology, mycology, virology and parasitology: Mechanisms of infection: antibiotics, antifungals, antiviral agents and anti-parasitic agents. Pathogenic bacteria and associated diseases - pathogenesis, clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory diagnosis, control and principles of treatment.  Fungal diseases, laboratory diagnosis and principles of treatment. Viral infections: laboratory diagnosis and principles of treatment. Tropical diseases: laboratory diagnosis and principles of treatment.  Opportunistic infections and nosocomial infections. Prions.

Haematology and Immunology: Cells of the circulatory system.  Haemostatic mechanisms.  Anaemias and porphyrias.  Blood groups.  Immune system and infections – bacterial, viral, parasites.  Allergies Immunotechnologies.  Cytokines and regulation.  HIV. Leukemias and systemic oncology.


MBM3201:    Pathology II

Pathology of the major systems:  the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, breast, endocrine, kidney, integumentary, lymphatic, haematological, nervous system, musculoskeletal, ophthalmic and auditory systems.  HIV Pathology. Forensic pathology.


MBM 3202:   Introduction to Pharmacology and Toxicology

Pharmacology: Structure of drugs basic knowledge of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics as the basis of understanding mechanisms of drug action.

Toxicology: Common environmental inorganic and organic poisons.  Cyt. P450 xeniobiotic metabolism and excretion mechanisms.  Plant and microbial toxins.  Carcinogens. Diagnostic techniques.



In each year assessment will be done annually by mixed forms of continuous assessment (40%) followed by final written and oral examinations (60%).


Continuous assessments (40%):

a)    Tests and quizzes e.g. at end of each course topic (approx).

b)   Practical reports, assignments, students' presentations and case reports.


Final examinations (annual):

a)    Written papers for all courses ± MCQ (30%).

b)   Anatomy practical examination and viva voce examinations (30%).